Site for sex x
Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome (45X or 45Y) (sex monosomies) and some with three or more sex chromosomes (47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc.) (sex polysomies).
Clearly, there are not only females who are XX and males who are XY, but rather, there is a range of chromosome complements, hormone balances, and phenotypic variations that determine sex.
Gender, typically described in terms of masculinity and femininity, is a social construction that varies across different cultures and over time.
(6) There are a number of cultures, for example, in which greater gender diversity exists and sex and gender are not always neatly divided along binary lines such as male and female or homosexual and heterosexual.
More than 95% of the Y chromosome is male-specific (4) and a single copy of the Y chromosome is able to induce testicular differentiation of the embryonic gonad.
The Y chromosome acts as a dominant inducer of male phenotype and individuals having four X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (49XXXXY) are phenotypically male.
(16) Divergence from the normal number of X and Y chromosomes, called sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA), accounts for approximately half of all chromosomal anomalies in humans with a total frequency of 0.
(19) Still, it is estimated that1 in 3 miscarriages is due to aneuploidy affecting the foetus.
The issues of gender assignment, gender verification testing, and legal definitions of gender are especially pertinent to a discussion on the ELSI of gender and genetics.
These practices, however, are misnomers as they actually refer to biological sex and not gender.
Chromosomes are the structures that carry genes which in turn transmit hereditary characteristics from parents to offspring.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one half of each pair inherited from each parent.